• Zarr N, Brown JW (submitted) Foundations of Human Problem Solving. bioRxiv 779322 [article]
  • Haines N, Rass O, Shin YW, Busemeyer JR, Brown JW, O’Donnell BF, Ahn WY (submitted) Negative Affect Induces Rapid Learning from Counterfactual Representations: A Model-based Facial Expression Analysis Approach. bioRxiv 560011 [article]

In Press

  • Woo JH, Azab H, Jahn A, Hayden BY, Brown JW (in press) The PRO model accounts for the anterior cingulate cortex role in risky decision-making and monitoring. Cogn. Aff. Behav. Neurosci. [preprint]


  • Alipour A, Beggs J, Brown J, James T (2022) A computational examination of the two-streams hypothesis: which pathway needs a longer memory? Cognitive Neurodynamics 16:149-165 [article]
  • Purcell JR, Herms EN, Morales J, Hetrick WP, Wisner KM, Brown JW (2022) A review of risky decision-making in psychosis-spectrum disorders. Clin. Psychol Rev. 91:102112 [article]


  • Modak P, Hutslar C, Polk R, Atkinson E, Fisher L, Macy J, Chassin L, Presson C, Finn PR, Brown JW (2021) Neural bases of risky decisions involving nicotine vapor versus monetary reward NeuroImage: Clinical 32:102869 [article]
  • Purcell JR, Jahn A, Fine JM, Brown JW (2021) Neural correlates of visual attention during risky decision evidence integration. NeuroImage 234:117979 [article]


  • Raymond D, Paneto A, Yoder K, O’Donnell B, Brown J, Hetrick W, Newman SD (2020) Does chronic cannabis use impact risky decision-making: an examination of fMRI activation and effective connectivity? Frontiers in Psychiatry 11:599256. [article]
  • Fine J, Zarr N, Brown JW (2020) Computational neural mechanisms of goal-directed planning and problem solving. Computational Brain and Behavior. 3:472-493 [pdf] [article]


  • Alexander WH, Brown JW (2019) The Role of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Prediction Error and Signaling Surprise. Topics in cognitive science 11(1):119-135 [pdf]
  • Verbruggen F, Aron AA, Band GPH, Beste C, Bissett PG, Brockett AT, Brown JW… (2019) A consensus guide to capturing the ability to inhibit actions and impulsive behaviors in the stop-signal task. eLife e46323. [article]


  • Alexander WH, Brown JW, Collins AGE, Hayden BY, Vassena E (2018) Prefrontal cortex in control: Broadening the scope to identify mechanisms. J. Cogn. Neurosci 30(8):1061-65. [pdf]
  • YJ Wong, J Owen, NT Gabana, JW Brown, S McInnis, P Toth, L Gilman (2018) Does gratitude writing improve the mental health of psychotherapy clients? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy Res. 28(2):192-202 [pdf]
  • Fukunaga R, Purcell J, Brown JW (2018) Discriminating formal representations of risk in anterior cingulate cortex and inferior frontal gyrus. Frontiers in Neurosci. 12:553 [article]
  • Alexander WH, Brown JW (2018) Frontal cortex function as derived from hierarchical predictive coding. Scientific Reports 8(1):3843 [article]


  • Forster SE, Finn PR, Brown JW (2017) Neural responses to negative outcomes predict success in community‐based substance use treatment Addiction 112(5):884-896. [pdf]
  • Brown JW, Alexander WH (2017) Foraging value, risk avoidance, and multiple control signals: How the anterior cingulate cortex controls value-based decision-making. Journal of cognitive neuroscience 29(10):1656-1673.  [pdf]
  • Alexander WH, Brown JW, Collins AGE, Hayden B, Vassena E (2017) Prefrontal Cortex in Control: Broadening the Scope to Identify Mechanisms. Journal of cognitive neuroscience [article]
  • Brown, JW (2017) Cingulate Cortex Function in Cognitive Control. The Wiley handbook of cognitive control, 259 [pdf]


  • Jahn A, Nee DE, Alexander W, Brown JW (2016) Distinct regions within medial prefrontal cortex process pain and cognition. J. Neurosci. 36(49):12385-12392.[pdf]
  • Forster SE, Finn PR, Brown JW (2016) A preliminary study of longitudinal neuroadaptation associated with recovery from addiction. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 168:52-60. [pdf]
  • Wittmann M, Kolling N, Akaishi R, Chau B, Brown JW, Nelissen N, Rushworth MFS (2016) Prospective decision making driven by reward memories with multiple time constants in anterior cingulate cortex. Nature Communications 7:12327. [article]
  • Akaishi R, Kolling N, Brown JW, Rushworth M (2016) Multiple neural mechanisms of credit assignment in a multi-cue environment. J. Neurosci. 36(4):1096-1112.  [pdf]
  • Kini P, McInnis S, Gabana N, Wong J, Brown JW (2016) The effects of gratitude expression on neural activity. NeuroImage 128:1-10. [pdf]
  • Zarr N, Brown JW (2016) Hierarchical error representations in medial prefrontal cortex. NeuroImage 124:238-47. [pdf]


  •  Alexander WH, Brown JW (2015) Hierarchical error representation: A computational model of anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Neural Comput. 27:2354-2410. [pdf]
  • Alexander WH, Fukunaga R, Finn PR, Brown JW (2015) Reward salience and risk aversion underlies differential ACC activity in substance dependence. NeuroImage: Clinical 8:59-71 [article]
  • Ramamoorthy A, Brown JW (2015) Performance Monitoring. In AW Toga (ed.) Brain Mapping: An encyclopedia reference. 3:355-9. Academic Press: Elsevier
  • Hulvershorn L, Hummer T, Overhage L, Fukunaga R, Finn P, Leibenluft E, Anand A, Wang Y, Dir A, Cyders M, Brown JW (2015) The Neural Basis for Risky Decision Making in Youth at High Risk for the Development of Substance Use Disorders. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 33(2):102-111. [pdf]
  • Alexander WH, Brown JW (2015) Reciprocal interactions of computational modeling and empirical investigation. In Forstmann and Wagenmakers (eds) Model-based cognitive neuroscience: an introduction. New York: Springer  [pdf] [book]


  • Vélez de Mendizábal N, Jones DR, Jahn A, Bies RR, Brown JW (2014) Nicotine and Cotinine Exposure From Electronic Cigarettes: A Population Approach. Clinical Pharmacokinetics 54(6):615-26. [pdf]
  • Brown JW (2014) The tale of the neuroscientists and the computer: why mechanistic theory matters. Front. Neurosci. 8:349. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2014.00349 [article]
  • Nee DE, Jahn A, Brown JW (2014) Prefrontal cortex organization: Dissociating effects of temporal abstraction, relational abstraction, and integration with fMRI. Cerebral Cortex  24:2377-87. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bht091 [pdf]
  • Alexander WH, Brown JW (2014) A general role for medial prefrontal cortex in event prediction Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience 8:69.   doi: 10.3389/fncom.2014.00069  [pdf]
  • Jahn A, Nee DE, Alexander WH, Brown JW (2014) Distinct regions of anterior cingulate cortex signal prediction and outcome evaluation.  NeuroImage 95:80-89.  DOI 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.03.050 [pdf]
  • Zarr N, Alexander W, Brown JW (2014) Discounting of reward sequences: a test of competing formal models of hyperbolic discounting. Frontiers in Psychology 5:178 [pdf]
  • Silvetti M, Alexander W, Verguts T, Brown JW (2014) From conflict management to reward-based decision-making: Actors and critics in primate medial frontal cortex. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 46(1):44-57.[pdf]


  • Fukunaga R, Bogg T, Finn P, Brown JW (2013) Decisions during negatively-framed messages yield smaller risk-aversion-related activation in substance-dependent individuals. Psychology of Addictive Behavior 27(4):1141-1152 [pdf]
  • Brown JW (2013) Beyond conflict monitoring:  Cognitive control and the neural basis of thinking before you act.  Current Directions in Psychological Science. 22(3):179-185 [pdf]
  • Nee DE, Brown JW (2013) Dissociable frontal-striatal and frontal-parietal networks involved in updating hierarchical contexts in working memory. Cerebral Cortex 23(9):2146-2158 [pdf]
  • Nee D, Brown JW, Askren M, Berman M, Demiralp E, Krawitz A, Jonides J (2013) A meta-analysis of executive components of working memory. Cerebral Cortex 23(2):264-282 [pdf]


  • Nee DE, Brown JW (2012) Rostral-Caudal Gradients of Abstraction Revealed by Multi-Variate Pattern Analysis of Working Memory. NeuroImage 63:1285-94 [pdf]
  • Fukunaga R, Brown JW, Bogg T (2012) Decision Making in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART): Anterior Cingulate Cortex Signals Loss-Aversion but not the Infrequency of Risky Choices.  Cogn. Aff. Behav. Neurosci. 12:479-90 [pdf]
  • Bogg T, Fukunaga R, Finn P, Brown JW (2012) Cognitive Control Links Alcohol Use, Trait Disinhibition, and Reduced Cognitive Capacity: Evidence for Medial Prefrontal Cortex Dysregulation during Reward-Seeking Behavior.  Drug and Alcohol Dependence 122:112-8. [pdf]
  • Brown JW, Nee DE (2012) Executive control of cognitive search.  In Todd, Hills and Robbins (eds). Cognitive Search:  Evolution, algorithms, and the brain.  Cambridge:  MIT Press. [book listing] [pdf]
  • Winstanley CA, Balleine BW, Brown JW, Büchel C, Cools R, Durstewitz D, O’Doherty JP, Pennartz CM, Redish AD, Seamans JK, Robbins TW (2012) Search, goals, and the brain.  In Todd, Hills and Robbins (eds). Cognitive Search:  Evolution, algorithms, and the brain.  Cambridge:  MIT Press. [book listing]   [pdf]


  • Jahn A, Nee DE, Brown JW (2011) The neural basis of predicting the outcomes of imagined actions.  Frontiers in Decision Neuroscience.  5:128.  DOI:  10.3389/fnins.2011.00128 [pdf]
  • Alexander WH, Brown JW (2011) Medial prefrontal cortex as an action-outcome predictor.  Nature Neurosci. 14(10):1338-44  [pdf]  [matlab demo] [news & views]
  • Brown, JW (2011) Medial prefrontal cortex activity correlates with time-on-task: What does this tell us about theories of cognitive control? NeuroImage 57:314-5. [pdf]
  • Forster SE, Brown JW (2011) Medial prefrontal cortex learns to predict the timing of action outcomes.  NeuroImage 55(1):253-265  [pdf]
  • Krawitz A, Braver TS, Barch DM, Brown JW (2011) Impaired error likelihood prediction in medial prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. NeuroImage 54(2):1506-17  [pdf]
  • Ahn WY, Krawitz A, Busemeyer JR, Kim W, Brown JW (2011) A model-based fMRI analysis with hierarchical bayesian parameter estimation.  J. Neurosci. Psychol. Econ.4(2):95-110. [pdf]
  • Nee DE, Kastner S, Brown JW (2011) Functional heterogeneity of conflict, error, task-switching, and unexpectedness effects within medial prefrontal cortex.  NeuroImage.54:528-540 [pdf]
  • Alexander WH, Brown JW (2011) Computational neuroscience models:  Error monitoring, conflict resolution, and decision making.  In V. Cutsuridis, D. Polani, A. Hussain, T. Tishby, and J. Taylor  (eds.) Perception-reason-action cycle: Models, algorithms and systems.  New York: Springer


  • Alexander WH, Brown JW (2010) Computational models of performance monitoring and cognitive control.  Topics in Cognitive Science 2(4):658-677 [pdf]   [preprint]
  • Moore L, Gunzelmann G, Brown JW (2010) Modeling Statistical Learning and Response Inhibition with the Change Signal Task.  In D.D. Salvucci & G. Gunzelmann (Eds.),Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling.  (pp. 169-174) Philadelphia, PA: Drexel University. [pdf]
  • Krawitz A, Fukunaga R, Brown JW (2010) Anterior insula activity predicts the influence of gain framed messages on risky decision-making. Cogn. Aff. Behav. Neurosci. 10(3):392-405. [pdf]
  • Alexander WH, Brown JW (2010) Hyperbolically discounted temporal difference learning. Neural Computation 22(6):1511-1527.  [pdf]
  • Jessup RK, Busemeyer JR, Brown JW (2010) Error effects in anterior cingulate cortex reverse when error likelihood is high.  J. Neurosci. 30(9):3467-3472 [pdf] 
  • Stuphorn V, Brown JW, Schall JD (2010)  Relationship of supplementary eye field to saccade initiation during a countermanding task: executive not immediate control.  J. Neurophysiol. 103(2):801-16  [pdf]
  • Alexander WH, Brown JW (2010) Competition between learned reward and error outcome predictions in anterior cingulate cortex.  NeuroImage  49:3210-3218.  [pdf]


  • Brown JW (2009) Conflict effects without conflict in anterior cingulate cortex: Multiple response effects and context specific representation. NeuroImage 47:334-341. [pdf]
  • Brown JW, Braver TS (2009) Executive function and higher-order cognition: Computational models. In L. Squire (ed.) Encyclopedia of Neuroscience 4:93-98.  Oxford: Academic Press.
  • Brown JW (2009) Multiple cognitive control effects of error likelihood and conflict. Psychological Research 73:744-750. [pdf]


  • Brown JW, Hanes DP, Schall JD, Stuphorn V (2008)  Relation of frontal eye field activity to saccade initiation during a countermanding task. Experimental Brain Research190(2):135-151. [pdf]
  • Emeric EE, Brown JW, Leslie M, Pouget P, Stuphorn V, Schall JD (2008) Performance monitoring local field potentials in the medial frontal cortex of primates: Anterior cingulate cortex. Journal Neurophysiology 99(2):759-772. [pdf]
  • Brown JW , Braver TS (2008) A computational model of risk, conflict, and individual difference effects in the anterior cingulate cortex. Brain Research.  1202:99-108. [pdf].


  •  Brown JW, Braver TS (2007) Risk prediction and aversion by anterior cingulate cortex. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience 7(4):266-277. [pdf]
  • Brown JW, Reynolds JR, Braver TS (2007) A computational model of fractionated conflict-control mechanisms in task switching. Cognitive Psychology. 55(1):37-85. [pdf]
  • Emeric EE, Brown JW, Boucher L, Carpenter RHS, Hanes DP, Harris R, Logan GD, Mashru RN, Pare M, Pouget P, Stuphorn V, Taylor TL, Schall JD (2007) Influence of history on saccade countermanding performance in humans and macaque monkeys. Vision Research 47(1):35-49. [pdf]


  • Reynolds JR, Braver TS, Brown JW, Van der Stigchel S (2006) Computational and neural mechanisms of task-switching. Neurocomputing: An International Journal. Special Issue: Computional Neuroscience: Trends in Research 2006. 69(10-12):1332-1336. [pdf]


  • Brown JW, Braver TS (2005) Learned predictions of error likelihood in the anterior cingulate cortex. Science 307(5712) 1118-1121. [pdf]


  • Brown JW, Bullock D, Grossberg S (2004) How laminar frontal cortex and basal ganglia circuits interact to control planned and reactive saccades. Neural Networks 17(4):471-510. [pdf]

2003 and earlier

  • Ito S, Stuphorn V, Brown JW, Schall JD (2003) Performance monitoring by the anterior cingulate cortex during saccade countermanding. Science 302(5642):120-122. [pdf]
  • Braver TS, Brown JW (2003)  Principles of pleasure prediction: Specifying the neural dynamics of human reward learning. Neuron. 38(2):150-152. [pdf]
  • Schall JD, Stuphorn V, Brown JW (2002) Monitoring and control of action by the frontal lobes. Neuron 36:309-322[pdf].
  • Cohen JD, Braver TS, Brown JW (2002) Computational perspectives on dopamine function in prefrontal cortex. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 12(2):223-229. [pdf]
  • Brown J , Bullock D, Grossberg S (1999) How the basal ganglia use parallel excitatory and inhibitory learning pathways to selectively respond to unexpected rewarding cues.The Journal of Neuroscience 19(23):10502-10511. [pdf] 
  • Brown J, Hoger A (1996) A morphological point thinning algorithm. Pattern Recognition Letters. 17:197-207. [pdf]

Disclaimer:  The material above is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author’s copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder. Your access to the links of papers posted here will be considered a request for a reprint of the paper and delivery on the basis of such request. Direct DMCA concerns to